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发布时间:2021-06-01 22:54:06 655人气浏览



常接不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词(短语)有:感官动词feel,hear,listen to,see,watch,notice,look at;使役动词let,make,have等。如:What makes you happy? 什么让你高兴?



一、不定式的基本形式: to+动词原形,有时可以省略to. 二、 动词不定式的特点: (1)没有人称和数的变化,在句子中不能作谓语. (2)动词不定式仍保留动词的特点,可以有自己的宾语和状语.动词不定式同它的宾语或状语可构成动词不定式短语.如: to read a book; to sing at the party. (3)动词不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征,因此,在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、宾语补足语、定语和状语. 三、动词不定式作宾语.即不定式直接跟在谓语动词后,是谓语动词涉及的直接对象.如果没有这个不定式,这个句子的意思就让人难以理解. 能直接带不定式作宾语的及物动词主要有: want, like , love , need , try , ask , learn , begin , start , forget , remember, hope , wish , agree, choose , fail , refuse , decide , afford , offer , make sure , take turns , would like , plan , hate , try one’s best 等. 四、动词不定式作宾语补足语. 能用动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词有: ask , tell , get , order , would like , want , teach , show , allow , encourage , warn , wish , invite ,help等. 五、动词不定式作状语: 即不定式直接跟在谓语动词后,仅对谓语动词起一个补充说明的作用.如果没有它,句子仍然意思完整,它不象作宾语那样,与谓语动词有着密切的关系.(1)表示目的: The doctor came to operate on her. He has gone to town to do some shopping. I sat down to have a rest. He stopped to have a look. He rushed into the room to save the girl. The moved away the stone to let the traffic go. He got up to catch the train. (2)表示结果: The girl cried only to make her mother angry. (3)表示程度: She is too tired to walk any farther. She is strong enough to carry the heavy box. (4)表示原因: I was surprised to read the news. 能带不定式作状语的形容词有: glad , happy , pleased , angry , clever , careful , surprised , lucky ,ready ,sorry, amazed , afraid ,sad , unhappy , sure , free ,kind, nice , worried , easy , hard 六、不定式作定语: 动词不定式作定语,一般要放在被修饰词的后面,不定式与所修饰的词构成动宾关系. We have lots of work to do. Would you like something to drink? I want to get something to read during my holiday. That’s a difficult question to answer. 【注意】如果动词不定式是不及物动词,后面就应有必要的介词. 如: He is looking for a room to live in. Give me a piece of paper to write on. He has nothing to worry about. There is not enough space to stand in on the earth.. She is a nice person to work with. a place to go to. 七、动词不定式作主语: 如 To learn a foreign language is not easy. 在现代英语中,常用it来作形式主语,而把真正的动词不定式主语放在后面.即句型: “It is+形容词+for ( of) sb. to do sth.”中,当形容词是kind ,nice , good , clever , careful , careless , right , wrong , foolish 等表示人的性格特征时, 用of ; 如果形容词为difficult , easy , hard, important ,interesting, possible ,necessary 等表示事物的特征时, 用for. It is necessary / important / easy / hard/ possible for us to learn English well. It is very kind /nice / good of you to help me with my English. ※ 在句型: 主语+find / think / feel / make +it +形容词+ to do sth.中,it为形式宾语. I found it very important to learn English well. I think it easy to learn English well. 八、作表语: My job is to teach English. His wish is to become a scientist. 九、动词不定式和疑问词连用.动词不定式可以和疑问词what, which , how , when , where ,who 等连用,构成不定式短语,在句子中作主语、宾语、表语等成分.这时往往可以扩写成宾语从句; The question is how to use the computer. I don’t know where to go for my holiday =I don’t know where I can go for my holiday. He can’t decide which book to choose.= He can’t decide which book he can choose. I don’t know what I should do next=I don’t know what to do next. 十、动词不定式的否定形式: not to+动词原形 Tell him not to be late. I will try not to read in bed. 十一、动词不定式省略to的场合:(1)作动词let, make , have, feel ,hear, see , watch , notice 等的宾语补足语时,动词不定式不带to. Let him do the work. He made me work day and night. I saw him fall off the bike. (2)作动词help的宾语补足语时,动词不定式可带to,也可不带to. He didn’t help me(to)mend the bike. You have helped ( to ) protect our environment. (3)在助动词和一些情态动词如will , would , shall , should , can , could , may , might , must , do , does , did , didn’t , don’t , doesn’t 等的后面,用动词原形,即动词不定式不带to. Will you help me? He doesn’t live here. It might rain . You must finish your homework on time. (4)在why not…? , had better , would rather 等的后面也跟不带to的动词不定式.(原形) Why not buy a dictionary? You had better (not)stay at home. I would rather go early. (5)在第二个不定式前一般不带to. I would like to lie down and go to sleep. Do you want to eat now or wait till later? ※ 在下列答语中, to不能省略: -Will you join me in a walk?-I will be glad to. -Will you go swimming with me this afternoon?-I would love to. -Used he work in the factory?-Yes , he used to . Exercises: 1. We must find a person (做这项工作) 2. In my family, my mother is always the first one (起床) 3. Do you have (什么问题要问)? 4. There are (许多重要事情要谈) 5. This book is (不容易理解) 6.He was too excited (说不出话来) 7. Do you think him easy (容易相处)? 8. You must get him (今晚顺便到这儿来) 9. It was not good (早晨起床晚) 10. It was a mistake (没有帮他学英语) 11. Her wish is (成为一名大学生) 12.What worries me is (在会上演说些什么) 13. It is our duty (保护家园) 14. I opened the door (让新鲜空气进来)






关键词:及物动词   句子


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